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* 22.03.1886 at Pilistvere, Viljandi County † 29.03.1963 in Stockholm Head of State (Elder of State) 04.12.1928-09.07.1929 Prime Minister in duties of the President 09.01.1945-29.03.1963 In 1918-1919, Minister of Labour and Social Welfare of the Provisional Government, Deputy Prime Minister and Acting Minister of Education. In 1919-1920 Chairman of the Constitutent Assambly (Asutav Kogu). In 1923-1925, Head of the Estonian delegation in the Estonian- Latvian Border Committee. In 1925-1926 Chairman of the II Riigikogu, 1932-1933 Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1936-1937 Assistant to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1938-1940 the Estonian Ambassador to the Soviet Union, Minister of Foreign Affairs in O. Tief's Government in September 1944. In 1919-1920 member of the Constituent Assembly, 1920-1934/1937 member of the I-V Riigikogu. Studied in the Tartu Emperor Alexander High School, finished the Novgorod State High School. In 1904-1905 and in 1907- 1911, studied law in the St. Petersburg University. In 1905-1907 he participated in the Russian revolution of 1905, in 1906 edited the underground paper "Sotsiaaldemokraat" (Social Democrat) in Tallinn. In 1914-1917 an artillery officer in World War I in the Fort of St. Petersburg, in 1917-1918 in the Estonian army, was the Assistant Chairman of the Supreme Committee of the Estonian military. In 1940 the Estonian Ambassador to the Soviet Union, escaped to Sweden via Riga in June 1940. In 1946-1949 Chairman of the Estonian National Foundation in exile, in 1947-1963 Chairman of the Estonian National Council. 1930-1936 President of the Alliance Francaise. Cross of Freedom III/1, 1932, Honorary Doctor of Law of Tartu University. Has written and translated socialist works, published memoirs. On 27.08.2006 was reburied to the Metsakalmistu in Tallinn.