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Prince Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly (27 Dec 1761 - 26 May 1818), a Russian General Field Marshal, bearer of all the four classes of the Order of St George, descended from a Baltic nobleman's family of Scottish descent. He excelled in the Russo-Turkish War of 1787-91, the Russo-Swedish War of 1788-90 and in the war against Napoleon in 1806. He was badly wounded at the Battle of Eylau of 1807. In the Russo-Swedish War he took Russian troops across the frozen Gulf of Bothnia, surprising the enemy and seizing UmeÃ¥ in Sweden. He was made Governor-General of Finland for his exploits in 1809. Serving as minister of war in 1810-12, he reorganized the army and drew up new Articles of War. During the Napoleonic invasion of 1812 he was commander of the 1st Western Army in the capacity of supreme commander. He headed successful retreat battles in Vitebsk and Smolensk. At the battle of Borodino of 7 September 1812 Barclay commanded the Russian right and central flanks. During the West-European campaign in 1813-14 he was commander of the Russian and later the Russian-Prussian army. He headed the victorious Kulm Battle of 1813 and commanded the taking of Paris in 1814. He was buried on his family estate at Jõgeveste in Estonia where a mausoleum (by architect A Shchedrin, grave monument by V Demut-Malinovski) was completed in 1823.