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* 13 April 1885 Käru, Simuna Parish
† 04 December 1942 Arkhangelsk Region, Russia
21 November 1922-2 August 1923
1918: finance and state treasury minister, deputy interior minister, representative of the Provisional Government in Petrograd; 1918-20 finance minister, 1920-21 minister for trade, industry and roads, 1921 minister for trade and industry, 1924-1926 Director of the Bank of Estonia; 1917-19 member of the Provisional National Council, 1919-20 member of the Constituent Assembly, 1920-26 member of the 1st and 2nd Riigikogu (parliament), incl. chairman of the 1st Riigikogu in 1921-22; 1918 author of the Manifesto of Independence; active co-operator, including in the Estonian Co-operatives Union, a leading figure in the consumers’ co-operative, the People’s Bank and in industrial companies, including the Balti Manufaktuur textile mill and the Eesti Turbatööstus peat industry; 1933-34 crediting and industrial policy lecturer at Tartu University. Cross of Liberty III/1. Arrested by NKVD on 16 October 1940 in Nõmme, died in Kargopollag prison camp in Arkhangelsk Region in Russia.